Isotonic Fluids Safer than Hypotonic Fluids for Pediatric Maintenance IV Therapy

January 31, 2014

January 31, 2014

A team from Xi'an Jiaotong University Medical School‘s Second Affiliated Hospital in China compared and evaluated the safety of isotonic versus hypotonic IV maintenance fluids in hospitalized children. From the comparison, it was found that treatment using hypotonic IV fluid raised the risk of hyponatremia in children, making isotonic IV maintenance fluids the safer option between the two.

Isotonic_Fluids

A team from Xi'an Jiaotong University Medical School‘s Second Affiliated Hospital in China compared and evaluated the safety of isotonic versus hypotonic IV maintenance fluids in hospitalized children. From the comparison, it was found that treatment using hypotonic IV fluid raised the risk of hyponatremia in children, making isotonic IV maintenance fluids the safer option between the two.

The team conducted a systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials published before April 11, 2013 that compared hypotonic with isotonic fluid maintenance therapy in children aged 1 month to 17 years. They extracted data and identified the trials using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standardized form to assess the risks of developing hyponatremia, severe hyponatremia, hypernatremia, and peptide nucleic acid changes after IV therapy, as well as adverse effects. Risk for bias was then assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias-tool.

Researchers identified 10 randomized controlled trials covering 855 patients who met the criteria. They found that risks for developing hyponatremia and severe hyponatremia were significantly higher with hypotonic fluids, with 2.24 and 5.29 relative risks, respectively.  Children who were treated with hypotonic fluids had significantly lowered peptide nucleic acid (pNa) than those who received isotonic fluids. “Overall, isotonic fluids are safer than hypotonic fluids in hospitalized children requiring maintenance IV fluid therapy in terms of pNa levels,” the authors said.

To ensure safe and efficient delivery of isotonic and other IV fluids, it is vital for healthcare providers to use only well-serviced infusion pump systems. AIV offers quality parts and services for most leading IV pumps. Learn more about AIV’s full line of pump parts and services at http://www.aiv-inc.com/iv-infusion-pump-replacement-parts.html.

About the Author

Laura Collier

Laura Collier

Laura Collier has a Bachelor’s Degree in Communications and a Master’s Degree in Business Administration from the University of North Florida. She is the Marketing Manager at AIV, Inc.

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